During the course of my research, many kind souls furnished
published, unpublished, personal recollections and other material, some of which
is very difficult to acquire. I have deposited my reference materials,
including most of the books, and hard copy of rare titles in this bibliography
with the Smithsonian Institution.
Researchers are encouraged to consult the primary sources
first such as the FCC, EC/EU, EBU, IEEE, BBC,
SMPTE, etc.; for the serious inquirer, the monthly subscriptions or memberships
fess are well worth the investment. Although this is the more difficult route,
it yields the truest picture of the historical facts as well as technical and
political issues regarding HDTV. And
for those so inclined, patent searches contain the most esoteric technical
details, and an interesting trail that tracks the evolution and interdependence
of HDTV/ATV technology.
those who are unfamiliar with the development of HDTV,
it is recommended that one acquire an historical overview before delving deeper
into a particular area. HDTV
research began in 1964 in and only came to fruition in 2006 with the European
rollout and subsequent global acceptance. Except for this book, there is no
source that covers this 40+ year history to any meaningful depth.
the most comprehensive on-line repository of HDTV
information on all levels, from engineering participant to industry analyst can
be found on-line at the
Founder Dale Cripps
began publishing the HDTV Newsletter in 1983 and
in November 1998 he launched the Internet distributed HDTV
HDTV World Review. Volume I, Number 4.
Autumn 1990, http://www.hdtvmagazine.com/archives/wrldrvw3.html
has articles by:
Corey Carbonara -A Current History of High Definition.
Jerry K. Pearlman - HDTV: The American Agenda
Robert W. Hubbard - Direct Broadcast Satellite
and issues up to1990 are chronicled in a number of studies done for US
Johnson, Leland. Development of High-Definition
Television: A Study in U.S.-Japan Trade
Relations. RAND Corporation. Santa Monica, CA.1990.
Office of Technology Assessment, The Big Picture: HDTV
and High-Resolution Systems, OTA-BP-CI'I'-64 (Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office, June 1990). Web.
An excellent academic work that provides a great
deal of detailed information about the Japanese, European and American efforts through the late 1990's:
Dupagne, M.; Seel, Peter B. HDTV:
High-Definition Television A global Perspective. Iowa State University press. Ames, IW. 1998. Print.
Abramson, Albert. The History of Television, 1942 to 2000. McFarland
& Co. Jefferson, NC. 2003. Print. Encyclopedic chronological
account of equipment and events with highly detailed references.
Robert. "Dr. Bob" was ATSC Director from 1985 to 1995 and Director of the Sony
Hi Def Center. He has posted an extensive library of primary documents and his
personal publications http://www.rhopkins.us/drbob.tv/documents/Robert_Hopkins_Publications.htm
Merrill. Issues in Advanced Television. Focal Press. Boston. 2006. Print. Reprints of Mr. Weiss's
columns publish in TV Technology during the 1990's.
Whitaker, Jerry (below)
ITE, DB-JET - Data Base of Noteworthy Japanese Contributions to Electrical
Japanese academic societies have complied a database related to electric,
electronic and information area (ITE, IPSJ,
IEIJ, IEEJ, IEICE) with the cooperation of NII. It is a great source for information and
images about Hi-Vision, MUSE and
all Japanese HDTV related R &
Click on dates related to
Broadcasting, then scan the results; or search for HDTV,MUSE, etc...
Without the seminal work of NHK one can only speculate as
to what might have been the fate of the Next generation of television. NHK
and ITE have extensive historical and technical information on their websites.
Many pages contain historical photographs.
of Television http://www.nhk.or.jp/strl/aboutstrl/evolution-of-tv-en/p19.html
NHK Digital: http://www.nhk.or.jp/digital/en/body.html
publication from NHK, released during Dr. Fujio's tenure:
Fujio, et. al.
NHK Technical Monograph No. 32. NHK Technical Research Laboratories. Tokyo Japan. June
NHK Science and
technical Research Laboratories. High Definition Television: Hi-Vision
Technology. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New
York. 1993. Print.
Information about the development of Japan's ISDB
DTV technology is available in NHK documents:
NHK. Outline of the Specification for ISDB-T.
NHK. 1999. Web. http://www.nhk.or.jp/strl/open99/de-2/shosai-e.html
Digital Satellite Broadcasting and HDTV
Services in Japan.
NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories. Web.
A general history of NHK can be found in:
Krauss, Ellis S. Broadcasting Politics in Japan: NHK and Television News. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY.
European Council/Commission and it successor the European Union issued many
policy documents regarding HDTV/ATV. They usually can be located by an online
search by number and date, see text and endnotes for information.
European Council. COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 92/38/EEC of 11 May 1992 on the adoption of standards for satellite
broadcasting of television signals. Web.
about the Eureka-95/HD-MAC is can
be found in IBC papers available via IEEExpore and in:
"MODERN TELEVISION SYSTEMS to HDTV
and beyond." Pitman Publishing. London.
a large amount of technical detail about not only the European effort, but also
of the Japanese and American systems up to 1990 and the all-digital GI
Xiudian. Corporate Strategy, Public Policy and New Technologies: Philips and
the European Consumer Electronics Industry. Pergamon. Oxford, UK.
Elsevier Science, Ltd. 1996. Print.
Dai devotes a
considerable portion of his book to European consumer electronics, business and
political issues and a sizeable number of pages to Eureka-95
Both are out
of print but might still be available from on-line used-book sources; this is
where I found copies in 2010.
provided the following document and it is available in my archive at the
Bogels, P. W. & Reid, Dr. R. A. The EUREKA 95 HDTV
project - in Hindsight.
contains numerous HD-MAC related
articles (see below)
JPRS Report. "Science & Technology Europe." JPRS-EST-92-038. Foreign Broadcast Information
Service. Dec. 21, 1992. Web.
EBU Technical Review
Search at: www.ebu.ch/en/technical/
Go to last page and work forward chronologically: http://www.ebu.ch
David Wood has
written extensively from the European perspective regarding the development of HDTV. Search keywords: "Wood" "EBU" HDTV
- Wood & Baron. The Worldwide ITU
Dimension to DTV Standards - the impossible took a little longer. EBU
technical Review. July 2006. Web.
- Wood, David. The
Development of HDTV in Europe. July 2007.
The BBC has an extensive archive of technical
documents and white papers
Engineering at IBC88.
ENG INF No 34. Autumn 1988. Web.
DVB - Digital Video Broadcast
for DTV worldwide implementation information by country.
For a technical paper trail and insight into how various technologies
have been used as a basis in other ATV systems, patent filings shed an
abundance of light.
Search Patents at: http://www.uspto.gov/patents/process/search/
European and other interantaioanlly filed patents should
be consulted as well. For example, I found a Euoprean patent for an NHK
tri-level sync filing.
FCC Dockets and public comments are a vast repository of
original source documents. One with the "key" will find all the information
necessary there to decipher the course of events. But I warn, do not jump to
conclusions or use the information to support preconceived scenarios; instead,
allow the documents to tell the story. It is all there.
The ATV proceeding is MM
Docket No. 87-268. The Electronic Comment
Filing System (ECFS). ECFS serves as the repository for official records in the
FCC's docketed proceedings and rulemakings.
When searching, be sure to
bracket by dates, and/or use a keyword in the "Name of Filer" field.
ECFS search for Filings: http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/comment_search/input?z=zhd5x
ECFS Search for Proceedings: http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/proceeding_search/input?z=um4lo
The FCC ATV proceeding was initiated by a petition filed by
AMST, NAB and 56 broadcasters on February 13, 1987.
FCC. In the
Matter of Advanced Television Systems and Their Impact Upon the Existing
Television Broadcast Service. Docket No. 87-268.
Notice of Inquiry (NOI)
Notice of Inquiry (NOI)
Tentative Decision & Further NOI
1st Report & Order (R&O)
Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM)
2nd R&O / Further NPRM (FNPRM)
3rd R&O, 3rd FNPRM
4th FNPRM, 3rd NOI
ACATS- Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Services
Created by FCC November 17, 1987.
1st Interim Report
2nd Interim Report
3rd Interim Report
4th Interim Report
5th Interim Report
ATV System Recommendation
Final Report & Recommendation
The definitive source for information from stakeholders in
the US ATV process are their filings with the FCC. They are detailed,
exhaustive and clearly state the "official" position of the ATSC, ATTC, Grand Alliance, Microsoft and CICATS, and from individual filers such as Dr.
William F Schreiber. ACATS reports are available as well.
FCC. Telecommunications Act of 1996. Washington, DC.November 15, 2008.Web. http://www.fccov/telecom.html
FCC/OET 99-2, "DTV Report
on CODFD and 8-VSB Performance." FCC Office of Engineering and Technology.
Washington, DC. Sept. 30, 1999.
Congressional Testimony and Depositions
Numerous Congressional hearings were held and contain a vast amount of primary source material.
Liebhold, Mike. "High
definition information systems : hearings before the Subcommittee on Technology
and Competitiveness of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S.
House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, first session, May 14,
21, 1991." Testimony and supporting documents. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, DC.
Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on
Telecommunications and Finance: High definition television : hearing before the
Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance of the Committee on Energy and
Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, May 27, 1993. (Washington :
U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales
Office, 1993) (page images at Hathi Trust) Web. Accessed Feb. 28, 2011. http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?seq=3&view=image&size=100&id=pst.000021867101&u=1&num=87
Russell. Testimony. US House of Representatives Hearings on New Directions in
Video Technology. June 23,
For details about the consumer rollout of
HD and DTV in the US
America 2005. http://www.ce.org/Press/CEA_Pubs/831.asp
Industry and Visionary Influences
The US process was
heavily influenced by the Computer Industry and Media Visionaries. It is
important to understand how the television industry was considered by some to
be a subset of Information Technology and how the vision of the convergence of
television and computing impacted the US standardization process.
Gates, Bill. The Road Ahead. Viking. (Penguin Books).
Gilder, George. Life After Television: The Coming Transformation
of Media and American Life.
(Revised Edition) Norton. New York.
Cambridge, MA. 1994.
Negroponte, Nicholas. Being
Digital. Vintage Books (paperback). New
Neuman, McKnight, Solomon. The
Gordian Knot. MIT Press. 1998. (Second Printing)